UNIT THREE: SETTLEMENT

CHAPTER NINE: CIVIL WAR AND RECONSTRUCTION
Negotiations were dismissed and leaders of the Five Civilized Tribes were instructed to meet in Washington in January, 1866. When negotiations resumed in Washington, the government's hardline attitude had softened just a little. Instead of treating all the Indians as Southerners, government officials required some damages paid to the Union Indians. This mattered mostly to intertribal exchanges, however, and meant little to the tribes.

CHAPTER TEN: THE WESTERN INDIANS
Geronimo, or He-Who-Yawns, was a peaceful man until he returned from a hunting trip to find that his wife and children had been murdered by white men. He vowed to kill ten white people for each of his children. He was joined by many young Apache warriors. They raided and destroyed white settlements in Arizona, New Mexico, and Mexico for ten years. Geronimo surrendered once and was sent to the Apache reservation.

CHAPTER ELEVEN: CATTLE, TRAINS, AND RAILROADS
As farms grew thick in the East, the trail herds moved west. The most famous of all the trails through Indian Territory was the Chisholm Trail, named for Jesse Chisholm, a mixed-blood Cherokee trader and frontier scout. It entered the Territory on the south at Red River Crossing and ran roughly adjacent to the 98th Parallel until it crossed into Kansas at Caldwell.

CHAPTER TWELVE: BOOMER SOONER
Elias C. Boudinot, son of Elias Boudinot, encouraged the abandonment of old tribal customs concerning property ownership. He felt that progress and the Indian economy would be served by opening the Territory to white settlement. In 1878 Boudinot published a letter in the Chicago Times. It announced that, because the 1866 treaties provided for government purchase of unoccupied Indian lands, those lands were public domain and therefore were available to homesteaders. MK&T attorney T.C. Sears also published a similar letter.

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